Each level is just 100 energy. Every 1 energy increases damage by 1%. Every 100 energy increases the number of mechanics that occur. So, 0 energy is baseline; no increase. 50 energy causes the mechanic to do 50% more damage. 150 energy (1 level + 50 on that level) increases damage by 150% and the quantity of the mechanic is doubled (so, you'll get twice as many Static shocks/Diffusion Chains/Overcharges/Bouncing Bolts). 250 energy increases damage by 250% and the mechanic is tripled.

Remember that during transitions, each conduit gets +100 energy. Once the transition phase ends, each conduits loses all energy down to the nearest hundred. So, a 0 energy conduit will be 100 during the transition and drop back to 0 after the transition phase. A 50 conduit will be 150 then drop to 0. A 150 conduit will be 250 then drop to 100. A 250 conduit will be 350 then drop to 200.

This table might help explain:

Code:

Energy Damage Quantity
0-------100%------x1
50------150%------x1
100-----200%------x2
150-----250%------x2
200-----300%------x3
250-----350%------x3

The highest energy level conduit is always Supercharged after the transition (deactivated for normal; "learned" for heroic).