I think a lot of people would agree that Archaeology in it's current state is pretty boring - a sad remnant of the scrapped Path of the Titans system. So I was thinking of how it could be made a bit more exciting, so you actually felt like an Adventure Archaeologist. My suggestion is Tombs - short, randomly generated solo instances which reward treasure for completing them.
The Tombs would be accessed by taking up Archaeology Contracts. The Explorer's League or the Reliquary (Depending on your faction) would send you new Contracts every day, sending you to a specific zone to find a Tomb and complete a certain task. This could vary from simple treasure hunting missions, to killing grave-robbers, to cleansing disturbed spirits. You would of course be able to specify if you wanted specific types of Archaeology contracts (say if you only wanted to focus on Dwarven archaeology) or if you were happy to take up any contract.
Once you've taken a contract you head over to the targeted zone, and use the survey function to pinpoint the location of the tomb. Then you enter and make your way through. While there would be some mobs I think it'd be pretty cool for the focus to be on puzzles, and traps. Nothing too difficult. Once you've made it to the end of a Tomb you're rewarded with one of the high quality items that currently are rewards for getting lots of fragments as well as a modest monetary reward from the League/Reliquary for completing your contract. As your Archaeology skill increases you would be sent to Tombs with better and better rewards, ranging from say a treasure chest with some money to the skeletal raptor mount.
Fragments would still exist, but they'd be side activities - you'd come across them whilst going through a tomb. With the high quality rewards all located at the end of the Tombs, the fragments would only combine into the grey quality sell-able items. Instead of just selling them though, you could take them to the Reliquary or the Explorers League and create your own phased display of artefacts.